/ 8 GEOGRAPHICAL RANGE CHAP. Altogether the enormous progress in the complexity of the brain from the early Tertiary mammals down to the present, is , one of the most remarkable revelations of palaeontology. It goes perhaps some way in explaining the remarkable diversity in mode of life exhibited by the mammals as compared, for example, with the birds, whose brains have not diverged so much or in so many directions from the primitive form. The present Distribution of the Mammalia.—In the follow- ing pages some of the principal facts in the geographical range of the orders, families, arid many of the genera of Mammalia will be given. It has been justly observed by Mr. Sclater that the habitat of an animal is as much a part of its definition as is its structure or external form, ISFo systematic account of the Mammalia would therefore be complete without such geographical facts. But that branch of zoology which is concerned with the past and present distribution of animals is wider in scope than this. Zoogeography deals not only with the actual facts in the range of animals, but with the inferences as to past changes in the relations of land and sea which the facts seem to indicate, and with speculations as to the place of origin of the different groups, of which more than hints are sometimes given by their past and present distribution. In addition to this, the earth can be mapped out into provinces and regions which are definable by their animal inhabitants. In the present volume, dealing only with the Mammalia, it will be obviously impossible to enter fully into the entire subject of zoogeography. All that will be attempted is a brief general survey of the science so far as it can be illustrated by the Mammalia. For fuller knowledge the reader is referred to the treatises mentioned below.1 There are certain facts in the distribution of animals which are commonplaces of knowledge, but which may be set forth with definiteness. Everybody knows that an animal has a given range: Elephants, for example, are found in India and certain adjacent parts of Asia, and again in Africa; the Rhinoceroses have roughly the,same range; the Tiger is limited to Asia-; the 1 "Wallace, The Geographical Distribution of Animals, 1876. Heilprin, The Distribution of Animals, Internal Scientific Series, 1887. Beddard, A Teafft-Qook of Zoogeography, Cambridge Katural Science Manmals, 1895, Lydekker, &eogrcvpM~ col BX&tory of Mammals, Cambridge Geographical Series, 1890.* W. I*, and P. I». Sclater, The &eogrtqphy of Mammals, Kegan Paul and Co* 1809.